STOCKHOLM — The winners of all but one of the Nobel Prizes have been named in the last week. With the award for the Nobel Prize in Literature set to be announced Thursday, here is a list of the winners so far:
THE NOBEL MEMORIAL PRIZE IN ECONOMIC SCIENCES: Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom for their contributions to contract theory. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences says their theories are valuable to understanding real-life contracts that can deal with anything from CEO bonuses to the deductibles and co-pays for insurance.
THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos, 65, for his efforts to bring his country’s lethal civil war to a peaceful end after five decades of bloodshed. He dedicated the prize to his fellow Colombians, especially the victims of the conflict.
THE NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY: Frenchman Jean-Pierre Sauvage, 71, of the University of Strasbourg; British-born Fraser Stoddart, a 74-year-old chemistry professor at Northwestern University in Illinois in the United States; and Dutch scientist Bernard “Ben” Feringa, 65, a professor of organic chemistry at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, for helping to develop the smallest machines known to man. They developed tiny molecular machines that will likely be used for the development of new computer chips, batteries and energy storage systems.
THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS: David Thouless, 82, a professor emeritus at the University of Washington, Duncan Haldane, 65, a physics professor at Princeton University in New Jersey, and 73-year-old Michael Kosterlitz of Brown University in Rhode Island. They were rewarded for their research in the 1970s and 1980s that revealed secrets of exotic matter such as superconductors that may lead to the development of new materials for use in advanced electronics or computers. They are British-born scientists who have conducted extensive research in the United States.
THE NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE: Yoshinori Ohsumi, a 71-year-old Japanese scientist and professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology for experiments in the 1990s dealing with autophagy, the “self-eating” process that lets a cell break down and recycle some of its contents, which rapidly provides fuel and building blocks. Breakdowns in the autophagy process have been linked to a number of grave diseases including Parkinson’s, diabetes and cancer. The Karolinska Institute said researchers had known about autophagy for half a century, but its wide-ranging significance was only made clear by Ohsumi’s experiments.